New colonial settlements
During their long journey to Cusco, it became visible that the conquerors presence was not welcome by all the inhabitants. An act of resistance was headed by Atahualpa’s generals; however, as the Spaniards had the support of local ethnic groups and the Huascar party, the resistance was easily defeated. Successive rebellions were heavily repressed; the guns and horses brought by the conquerors inspired terror among the locals and as a consequence it was relatively easy to conquer this extensive territory. By the end of 1533 Cusco was under Spaniard control becoming a new Spanish colonial settlement.
In 1535 Pizarro founded the City of Kings or Ciudad de los Reyes, the new Peruvian capital, Lima. Its proximity to the sea and access to a port facilitated communication and trade with Spain. New political, administrative and military institutions were created to govern the territory and Lima became the center of Spanish power in South America.
Many Inca cities were rebuilt, their buildings were looted for valuable metals and some of them were demolished. Others kept their original walls as foundations for new buildings. Towns were built around a central plaza with a church or cathedral facing the government building.
The new colonial society was conservative and based on social classes. The offspring of Spanish citizens born in America, criollos, had less status than native Spanish and were not allowed to reach high positions in the government. Below them in the social scale were Amerindians and mestizos. Only curacas kept their old privileges and their offspring were allowed to attend schools for the noble.