Home » Archive

Articles in the Pre-Inca Civilizations Category

History, Pre-Inca Civilizations »

There were many pre-Columbian cultures that preceded the , some  by  millenia.  What we know of these pre-Inca civilizations is entirely from archeological excavations since they did not make use of a written language. Archeologists had deduce historical information from tools, art and buildings and interpret the decoration found on pottery and textile to understand their way of life. Pieces of Pre-Inca and Inca art are displayed in Peru’s archeological museums.

The first known city was the city of Caral located in the Supe Valley 200 km north of Lima, it …

History, Pre-Inca Civilizations »

Late Intermediate Period – Chimu and Chincha Cultures

The Late Intermediate Period extends from approximately 1000 to 1470. This period is characterized for the rapid artistic and technological development of its metallurgic and crafts production. In their craft production they used semiprecious stones such as turquoise and emeralds, wood, sea shells, textiles and pottery and exported it to the different regions of ancient Peru.
Chimu and the great city of Chan Chan
Around the year 1000 the Chimu absorbed the Wari and Lambayeque or Sican cultures becoming the largest empire in Peru. It extended through the north coast from Piura …

History, Pre-Inca Civilizations »

Middle Horizon-Wari,Tiwanaku and Lambayeque Cultures

The Middle Horizon period extends from approximately 600 to 1000. were debilitated possibly by the effects of El Niño. As a result new cultures took over and flourished creating the first Andean Empire that extended from Cajamarca in the north to northern Bolivia and Argentina in the south.
Wari: Great Urbanizers
It developed between 550-900 in Ayacucho in the . It was the Wari who consolidated the construction of urban cities in the territory. The city was not only a place of residence but also a place of work; there were palaces, …

History, Pre-Inca Civilizations »

Pre-Ceramic and Initial Periods-Norte Chico and Kotosh Cultures

Long before existed people thrived in this territory. About 16,000 years ago groups of people are believed to have crossed the Bering Strait from Asia and survived as nomads, hunting, gathering fruits and vegetables and fishing in the sea, rivers and lakes.
Pre-Ceramic Period  – 8000-1850 BCE
Evidence of cultures from this period have been found in the . Hunting tools dating back 11,000 years have been found in the in caves in Pachacamac, Telarmachay, Junin, Lauricocha and Toquepala. During this period the inhabitants of learned how to domesticate . …

History, Pre-Inca Civilizations »

Early Horizon-Chavin, Paracas and Lima Cultures

Early Horizon – 800 – 200 BCE
Chavin: Great Astronomers
More than 3000 years ago an important civilization took place in Chavin de Huantar, southeast of the . It stretched through the north and central highlands and along . They built large temples, the largest early buildings in Peru, which allowed them to observe the stars and the movement of the sun and the moon therefore predicting climatic changes that benefited agriculture. Those in charge of the temples were priests also know as shamans. They occupied the top of the social hierarchy …

History, Pre-Inca Civilizations »

Early Intermediate Period-Nazca and Moche Cultures

Cultures thriving in this period date from approximately 200BCE to 600CE. Significant technological development took place in metalworking, pottery and irrigation systems. The two largest and most important cultures in this period are the Nazca and the Mochica or Moche cultures.
Nazca: In search of water
The members of the Nazca culture lived in the Nazca Valley, 250 miles or 400 km south of Lima between 100BC to 800AD. They were experts at turning desert land into arable land and were continuously searching for water. They dug underground, filtered the water and …