Regions and Microclimates of the Peruvian Andes
The Andean Mountains define the regions in the Sierra. These regions are grouped according to its altitude above the sea level. Each region has its own particular climate, flora and fauna that have adapted to its own environment adding to Peru’s rich biodiversity and ecosystems. The Sierra is the region with the most microclimates in the country and the lowlands on the eastern side of the Andes near the Amazon basin harbors Earth’s highest biodiversity.
There are as many climates as altitude regions exist in the Andes. They range from the warm temperatures at low altitudes to the freezing temperatures at levels over 14,000 feet or 4,267 meters above sea level. Temperature, humidity and atmosphere pressure increase in lower elevations.
Yunga Region: This region includes geographical floors of lower altitudes, between 1,640 to 8,200 feet or 500 and 2,500 meters above sea level. Its weather is warm and somewhat humid with little rain during the summer months but affected by landslides caused by heavy rains in higher altitude levels.
Quechua Region: It is formed by medium altitude zones of approximately between 8,200 to 11,480 feet or 2,500 to 3,500 meters. Its climate is temperate with heavy rains during the summer months and low humidity. During the winter the skies are clear and the days are sunny.
Suni region: It includes medium altitude zones of between 11,480 to 13,450 feet or 3,500 to 4,100 meters. Its climate is temperate-cold.
Puna or Jalca Region: Formed by high altitude Andean plateaus located above 13,450 feet or 4,100 meters. Its climate is cold with snow precipitation.
Janca or Cordillera Region: It includes the highest elevation in the country. Its climate is very cold to freezing year round.
There are two well defined seasons throughout the year the dry and the rainy seasons. The dry season is between April and October with sunny days and cool nights. The rainy season is between November and March, the amount of precipitation and the temperature vary according to the altitude.